1 Introduction

Environmental risks are typically characterized in the risk assessment framework by considering the ratio between exposure concentrations and critical effect concentrations. Exposure concentrations can be determined based on measurement data or can be estimated based on modeling. The EUSES (European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances) 2.0 model was used in the EU RA of nickel to estimate nickel exposure concentrations or Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) on  local (PEClocal) and regional (PECregional) scales. The input data for calculating the PECregional are total nickel emissions from point and diffuse sources on a regional as well as on a continental scale. The continental area is in the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) defined as “Europe.” The regional area (generic region) is defined as 1)  10% of the continental area or 2)  a typical densely populated EU-area located in Western Europe. This fact sheet describes how the total regional and continental nickel emissions were calculated in the EU RA of Ni.

In the EU RA, an iterative process is used to calculate nickel emissions, as shown in Figure 2. The quantification is based on the most appropriate method, dependent on the availability of accurate emission quanti


Figure 2:  Iterative approach used
for the quantification of total nickel emissions