The History of Stainless Steel – Part 1

Developments before the Discovery of Stainless Steels

Iron Age Tools

Archeologists say iron was first used in tools as early as 2,500 B.C. in what they call the Bronze Age. Once refining techniques were improved, iron became relatively inexpensive; however, iron’s main disadvantage over bronze was that it rusted when wet. This meant, taking a modern example, that cutlery made of iron or steel had to be washed and dried immediately after use, otherwise it would rust. It was clear to all that there was a need for a rust-less iron, that is, an inexpensive material that did not rust.

Current Issue

Nickel and sustainability

Towards a circular economy

August 30, 2018


Feature Story:
A catalyst for sustainable operations
Nickel-containing catalysts are widely used in the refining and petrochemical industries worldwide. At end-of-life, catalysts are either sent to landfill or sent for recycling to recover the valuable metals they contain. Refineries in Kuwait are changing the way they handle spent catalysts.